Aboriginal Education, Home-Based Education, Indigenous Education, Indigenous Pedagogies, Schooling

The way forward for Indigenous education may have a link with home-based education research

I worked for eight and a half years in schools that were dedicated to delivering schooling to Australian Indigenous children.  One of the perennial problems was getting the children to come to school, and then if they did come, get them to stay at school for the full day.  Many children reacted violently to their experience of school and schooling, and it was not unusual to have a chair over-turned, obscenities shouted, or other similar displays of extreme behaviour.  I have been spat on, kicked, accused of all kinds of physical contortions that are just not possible, and I believe that I was a well-liked teacher — at least that was what I was led to believe by the children outside the school context.

Biermann  wrote:

… the (Australian) education system played a central part in the colonisation of Indigenous peoples, by devaluing and apprehending the transmission of their cultures, knowledges and languages.  This has led to a deep suspicion, shared by many Indigenous people, towards the ultimate goals and effects of mainstream schooling (Biermann, 2008, p. 28).

In my Master of Education (Leadership) dissertation I addressed the way that schooling has, to date, been delivered to Indigenous children and suggested that they would feel much more comfortable in an environment that reflects their Indigenous pedagogical heritage.  I also argued that Indigenous pedagogies mirror cutting-edge, best practice pedagogies around the world.

A central component of Indigenous pedagogies is relationship.  Learning that lasts does not take place without trust, perseverence, and a sense of purpose about it.  It is not good enough to say that schooling will get you a good job.  It doesn’t, necessarily, lead to a job, and generations of schooled (but unemployed) Indigenous people will testify to that.  I would argue that it is an education that they are needing, not schooling: with its busy work, age-segregation, teachers who have no relationship with the family, centralised curriculum, bells, subject fragmentation, etc..

Home-based education has a lot to offer, and there is a need for much more research to discover why it is that many, if not most, home-based educators get it so right.  Maybe the lessons we learn from the home-based education community will provide us some clues as to how we can do education much better for our Indigenous communities.  My suspicion is that the findings will point to Indigenous pedagogies being used in the home-based education context as being an important contributor to the success of the movement.

We shall see.


Biermann, S. (2008). Indigenous Pedagogies and Environmental Education: Starting a conversation. International Journal of Pedagogies and Learning. 4 (3), pp. 27-38.

Box, L.A. (2013). Warlpiri Business as Pedagogy: A Learning Journey. A monograph submitted as partial fulfillment for the degree of Master of Education (Leadership), Moreling College (National Institute for Christian Education), Melbourne, Victoria.

Aboriginal Education, Hebrew Pedagogies, Indigenous Education, Indigenous Pedagogies

The importance of narrative in home-based education: Learning from our Indigenous friends

Yunkaporta and Kirby, writing from an Indigenous perspective, in their chapter from Purdie, et al., entitled ‘Yarning up Indigenous pedagogies: A dialogue about eight Aboriginal ways of learning” (pp. 205-214) had this to say: “… the narrative and yarning modalities of our oral culture have been the keys to our thinking, learning, doing, knowing and being for many thousands of years” (Purdie, et al., 2011, p. 205).  This implies that from an Indigenous perspective, lots of story telling is an important feature of their educational processes.  This is supported by the original research of Etherington (2006), in his doctoral dissertation, Learning to be Kunwinjku.  Etherington points out that “… the function of Kunwinjku*  narrative is to provide the internalised, automatic models on which personal life decisions and behaviours are built, consciously or not, in emulation of the story tellers as much as of characters in the stories” (p. 375).

Story telling is an important Hebraic pedagogical strategy.  Jesus told lots of stories, many of them parables, and the images that are evoked by the stories have a singular meaning, but a multiplicity of applications.  Story telling is an economic means of communicating  complex and important concepts with a minimum of words.  The good story teller can tell the same story over and over, and by emphasizing or drawing attention to different elements in the story, through the way it is told, can help the listener to apply the same story to a range of appropriate circumstances.

The lecture of school has someone telling the listeners what to think and what is important.  The story teller, on the other hand, leaves room for the listener to draw from the story those elements of the story that are appropriate to their own situation.  The lecture abstracts knowledge, the story embeds knowledge in the concrete, but allows the listener to move from the concrete to the abstract as they are able.  Everyone gains from the story.  With the lecture, if you don’t get it, then you are dumb.

Home-based education is enriched by lots and lots of stories – stories from the heritage of the family, Bible stories, stories that provide interest for everyone from the youngest to the oldest in the family, but which also have varying levels of application throughout the family as appropriate.  Shared stories create a bond of relationship.  They provide a relational dimension to learning and education.
*First Nations People of Western Arnhem Land


Etherington, S. J. (2006). Learning to be Kunwinjku: Kunwinjku People Discuss Their Pedagogy.  A thesis submitted in Faculty of Education, Health and Science, Charles Darwin University for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.

Purdie, N., Milgate, G. and Bell, H.R.. (eds). (2011). Two Way Teaching and Learning: Toward culturally reflective and relevant education. Campberwell, Victoria: ACER Press

Aboriginal Education, Hebrew Pedagogies, Indigenous Education, Indigenous Pedagogies

What can we learn about education from out Indigenous friends?

Having worked for five years in an Indigenous community, amongst the Warlpiri people in Lajamanu, and having worked for four years in a school for Town Camp Indigenous students in town, I have come to appreciate that there is much to be learned from traditional Indigenous culture in Australia.  Because of the things that I learned whilst out bush, I count my five years amongst the Warlpiri as the best five years of my life.

One of the most important areas of learning was in the domain of education.  Armstrong wrote, in the chapter called ‘Talking the talk: the soft tissue of reconciliation’, of the Purdie, et al. (2011) book, called, Two Way Teaching and Learning, the following:

“You had to do so much on your own at school; this was not the way my mum taught us.  This was not the way we worked together.  Everything (at school) was done over and over to be perfect, and to look clean.  At home we learnt from doing and having a go, not by just reading all the time with a person who didn’t even know you or our family and talking at you all the time.  At home and in the bush we would talk and work things out for ourselves.  We could head off on the station as a group of kids with no adult and not be home for hours.  At School they had these rules” Purdie, et all., 2011, p. 227).

This is the case.  I have learned that there are many things that differ in the way Indigenous people conduct education, and the way that it is conducted in mainstream schools.

1.   With Indigenous people, learning is done in the context of intimate relationships.  It took me about three years in the bush to realize that relationships were critical in the learning process.  Aboriginal children don’t orient themselves towards learning unless they know you, and letting yourself be known takes years of being around–“OK, so he’s not like all the other plastic bags, blowing into the community, and then blowing out again.”

2.   With Indigenous people, the goal is not faultless perfection, it is participation.  While bureaucrats are concerned about outcomes and quantitative data collection as indicators of educational success, Aboriginal families, in many cases, are concerned about whether the children have enjoyed their attendance.  Many families reported to me that they were satisfied with their children’s progress at school, because the children enjoyed being in my class.  I could not show much, in terms of test results, but I did have students come back to my home after school and on the weekends, because they liked hanging out with me.  They were not at all interested in the school work, but they craved the relationship.  After school and on the weekends we did stuff like gun handling, hunting, telling stories, and such like.  A lot of learning took place, it just did not relate to school work.

3.   In community, children learned on their own.  From our perspective, it seemed that no one was looking after the children.  However, the children learned a measure of problem-solving and independent confidence that no amount of instruction in a school could impart.  A lot of the learning was destructive, but a lot of the learning was also creative.  Watch the film series, “Bush Mechanics” and you will see the level of creative problem solving that Indigenous children derive from the style of learning that they grow up with.

4.   Traditional people remember the days when there were no fences.  There were no boundaries for thousands of kilometres, and young people could explore in any direction for days and not exhaust the learning possibilities.  In many cases, this was done without adult supervision.  School teaches that there is only one track, and one direction, and one set of answers and that is set by the answers required by the teacher in the tests that are given.  Narrow thinking produces fear, dependence and vulnerability to control.  In days gone by there was such a thing as a liberal education.  By liberal was meant that it was expansive and covered a broad range of learning that enabled a global perspective of life.  These days, specialization is started early, and the capacity to have an integrated perspective is limited.

5.   Indigenous education is multi-sensory and multi-modal.  Children learn by dancing, singing, listening to stories, watching, painting, having the body painted whilst being spoken and sung over, eating, making artifacts, being caressed, ground-pounding, tasting, smelling, hearing, seeing, feeling; a cacophony of experiences all focused on one single message to be communicated.  However, that single message had layers and layers of application in complex inter-related fields of study: philosophy, religion, geography, geology, earth sciences, astronomy, sociology, psychology, etc.  So much data, from so many directions, that knowledge is not thought about, it is felt.  It is an immersion in knowledge, but the knowledge has immediately practical application.  For me, Indigenous pedagogies resonate with the pedagogies of the ancient Hebrews, with their cycles of feasts, sabbaths, temple and ceremonial rituals, priestly garb, and day-to-day learning in the context of living life: “when you rise, and when you go to bed, when you walk along the way”.

A coordinating value system is required in all of this.  However, having established the home base, children need the opportunity to range in their questions, and be exposed to a very broad range of learning situations and opportunities.  Life is not simplistically black and white.  There is not just one way to solve problems and resolve conundrums.  With a firm anchor within the grace of God, and full exposure to the boundaries set by the Law of God, we have the invitation: “Of all the trees in the garden you may freely eat, but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you may not eat.  For in the day that you eat thereof, you will surely die.”  A vast paddock full of trees to eat from.  Only one forbidden.  There is a lot to learn from that, in terms of how education should be conducted.  And I think our Indigenous friends can teach us a lot, if we had the grace to humble ourselves and become as children, willing to learn.


Purdie, N., Milgate, G. and Bell, H.R.. (eds). (2011). Two Way Teaching and Learning: Toward culturally reflective and relevant education. Campberwell, Victoria: ACER Press

Aboriginal Education, Accelerated Christian Education (ACE), Denominational Christian Schools, deschooling, Discipleship, Education, Education and Culture-making, Education and the Church, Education and the Family, Education and the Marketplace, Education and the State, Education Delivery Programs, Funding, Hebrew Pedagogies, Home Schools, Home-Based Education, Indigenous Education, Indigenous Pedagogies, Ivan Illich, Life Learning, Natural Learning, Schooling, Schools, Socialization, State Schools, Teaching, Tertiary Education, Themelic Christian Schools, Unschooling

God doesn’t want you to send your children to school: He wants them to have an education

After climbing to the top of the academic tree of education by earning a Diploma of Teaching (Primary), Bachelor of Education, Master of Education (School Leadership), Doctor of Philosophy (Christian Education) and a Certificate IV in Training and Assessment [mostly self-funded], and working for about 30 years at all levels of school from Preschool to adult education, I have come to realise that the deficiencies in educational outcomes for children in the western world are because of schools and schooling. Schools and schooling have always been the problem.


My new book is now available from Amazon.

Education and Schooling are not synonymous. A proper education does not require children to be sentenced to twelve years locked away in a total institution as if they were criminals, mentally insane, enlisted in the military or part of a religious cult.

The state has no mandate, at all, to be involved in education. Education is the proper sphere of the family, with support from the church, and assistance from free-market tutors and other community custodians of skills and knowledge.

True education should be delivered through unschooling, with a discipleship emphasis. Ivan Illich explored the idea in the 1970s, and the Triune God of the Bible emphatically agrees.  You can get this book from Amazon.

Some time ago, now, I walked away from working in a school as a school administrator. I am on the road to deschooling, but am conscious that there is much more of the road that needs to be traveled.

The focus of my research is around Biblical Christian deschooling/unschooling.  Over time I will be triangulating the things that I have found in the literature, with interviews conducted with families that are actually unschooling, and comparing the results with the development of my own thoughts over 30 years, as recorded in my personal journals.

I look forward to the day when home-based education is the norm, not just a curious anomaly.  Those who would like to read my book, you can get a copy from Amazon.


The dissertation for my post-graduate doctoral degree is located here: Dissertation found at this location .