Illich, I. (1970). Deschooling Society. Cuernavaca, Mexico: CIDOC. Downloadable from: http://www.preservenet.com/theory/Illich/Deschooling/intro.html
pp. 17-18 “… (the) two-faced nature of learning: drill and an education. School does both tasks badly, partly because it does not distinguish between them.”
This is a critically important distinction that needs to be embraced in the context of unschooling with a discipleship emphasis. Schools are very bad at distinguishing between drill and education, and very often swing to either extreme; i.e. fill the school day with drill and call it education, or fill the day with ‘education’, but neglect the importance of drill at critical times in the educational life of the child.
Both drill and education are required. Both have their place, and one cannot substitute for the other.
What then is meant by education, and what is meant by drill? How are they different, and how are they complementary?
By education is meant the living of life for the purpose of learning how to live life richly and fully. An education needs to be liberal, in the older sense of being exposed to a very broad range of experiences and cultural expressions, and being able to engage in social intercourse around around such cultural life. An education includes exposure to good music, beautiful works of art, great accomplishments in architecture, reading of excellent samples of literature from a range of historical periods, and so forth.
On the other hand, being able to live life requires the mastery of specific skills. Skills mastery often requires repetition, so that there are mental and physical stimulus-response tracks created in the brain and muscle fibres. Such drill could include the learning of algorithmic facts (i.e. times tables, addition/subtraction facts), phonics coding and decoding cues, geographical features such as rivers and mountains, and names of states and capital cities, lines of Presidents and Prime Ministers and Kings and Queens to create historical pegs upon which can be hung other historical facts, sport and athletic disciplines, and so forth.
Mastery of such skills is not an education, but neither can an education be complete without the mastery of such skills. The two must be understood, their part in the unschooling process embraced, and their complementary nature fully appreciated.
This just does not happen in most school contexts.